Classical Studies and Halloween

As a grad student, this can be a precarious time of year, bringing with it cooler weather, midterms, lengthening nights, paper-writing, falling leaves, and — most importantly — the festivities of Halloween.  Many of you may already have seen costumed revelers or prepared celebrations yourselves; after all, a party in the middle of the semester might be just the break that we graduate students need. But does Halloween, a holiday of Celtic origin, have more to offer students of classics? Today we’ll take a look at places where the mythology of Halloween intersect with classical culture and language, and collect some suggestions for incorporating this holiday in our classrooms and studies.


Most contemporary American Halloween traditions can be traced back to festivities surrounding the Day of Samhain, the first day of the Celtic new year (see Halloween in America, Santino 3-4). This liminal day served to mark the transition into the new year, and also symbolically to provide not just a temporal bridge but a bridge between the worlds of the living and the dead. Crops stopped their growing cycle and were harvested in preparation for the coming winter months, while firewood was gathered in preparation for the dying light. The Irish sagas also incorporated this holiday as a bridge between life and the afterlife, describing battles fought and wars decided all on Samhain.

Roman skeleton mosaic, courtesy of the History Blog:

Part of the reason that this holiday has been included in modern day American culture, however, was its incorporation into the Roman holiday honoring Pomona, goddess of the apple and harvest. Her celebration naturally occurred coincident with Samhain, and for Romans living in Gallia this led to the assimilation of the two festivals. These traditions survived for hundreds of years until they were both assimilated into the Roman Catholic Church’s celebration of All Saint’s Day, leading to the familiar Halloween we celebrate today.

Given the classical connection with this holiday, and the relationship that we, as participants in the modern world, certainly have with Halloween, how can we graduate students engaged with the classics celebrate this holiday?

Language and Halloween Translations

One way to celebrate Halloween as a classicist is to engage specifically with the language of the holiday. Among other things, Halloween is the time where stories tell of spooky monsters and horrific settings.  The classics are not without their share of things that go bump in the night, either. Sententiae Antiquae has gathered some of the most fitting stories of these monsters within their pages:

These stories present Greek and Latin tales of some of the spooky creatures we are used to seeing this time of year — Werewolves, Zombies, Vampires, and fear itself. Sententiae Antiquae has done an admirable job of indulging in the festivities of the Halloween season and providing revelers with Greek and Latin passages that fit these themes, but also reminding us of the intricacies of these classical cultures. Not only do they write how the Lamia is frequently interpreted using the vampire mythos, but reminds us that she is “a particular distillation of misogyny” and invites us to explore other similar tales. They also provide passages and descriptions of how Medieval scribes are associated with our Halloween theme.


An Etruscan relief showing “brain-eating”, courtesy of Sententiae Antiquae:

Other resources for celebrating the language of Halloween as a classicist are also made available to us. For example, Latinitium has created a Halloween Special video — in Latin, of course! — describing creatures both monstrous and supernatural that haunted the Roman world.

Culture and Halloween Traditions

In addition to reading passages on Halloween subjects, we can also celebrate the culture and traditions of this season.

Many groups and classrooms also choose this season to celebrate the Roman festival of Lemuria or Lemuralia. Though traditionally practiced on May 9, 11, and 13, this festival featured the lemures, malevolent familial spirits who returned on these three days to haunt their descendants.  Despite the calendrical mismatch, Lemuralia and Halloween do seem to share a certain tone and thematic element of ghosts and spirits returning from the dead. They also strangely share a tie to All Saint’s Day, which used to be celebrated on May 13 before it was moved back to the beginning of November. The Classical Association of New England provides a guide for celebrating Lemuralia with a Latin class, much of which can be adapted to different age ranges or locations.

Image result for Ancient Greek Lamia

Lamia carrying off an infant, courtesy of Senentiae Antiquae

Modern-Day Festivities

Is translating spooky stories and celebrating Lemuralia not enough for you? Are you looking for more ways to incorporate the classics into your Halloween celebration? Dig through a collection of classically-themed costumes collected by Idle Musings, including everything from tongue-in-cheek grammar points such as the supine (“just lie prone on the floor”), the fear clause, and intervocalic sigma rhotacizing, to classical stand-bys like the Furies, Medusa and Perseus, and the good ole Green and Yellow.  The Smithsonian Magazine also offers a guide for a last-minute, slightly more authentic toga to wear to your next Halloween party. Sententiae Antiquae provides a discussion on how to say “Trick or Treat” in Latin or Greek, so we can address each other appropriately come Halloween. Forbes even published a guide for which Halloween candy to pair figures in Roman history.

Toga wearers 1906

Turn-of-the-century Thespians showing off their Togas, courtesy of The Smithsonian Magazine:

Despite the dreariness and deadlines of this time of year, Halloween offers classical studies students plenty of opportunities to engage with traditional modern-day customs using our chosen discipline. What ways have you incorporated classics with Halloween? What classically-themed costumes and parties have you planned?



A Primer on the Varieties of Graduate Programs in Classics

By: Sarah Teets, Doctoral student in Classics at the University of Virginia (

If you’re considering applying to grad school in Classics, I’m willing to bet that you’ve heard at least two things about it: the admissions competition is stiff, and once you’re in, the work itself is much more demanding than what you were used to as an undergrad. This is true! And it’s a great reason why it’s important to understand the differences between the kinds of degrees and programs out there to determine which is the best fit for your professional goals and current skill levels. The PhD is not the only option for grad school in Classics, and those who do go for the PhD get there via various paths. This post aims to give a summary of the different options available to prospective students.[1] It’s not a guide to individual schools, but once you decide on the degree(s) you want to pursue, you can identify which schools offer it, and go from there.[2] The four basic options are the PhD, the MA, the Post-Bac, and the MAT.

Getting Advice

The PhD[3]

A typical PhD program in Classics or Classical Archaeology takes 6-8 years to complete (the first two of which generally result in an MA), and many people take longer to complete their PhDs. Six to eight years is a long time to spend with the pressures and demands of grad school (not to mention the low income). You want to be sure before you begin that this is the path you want. So ask yourself, do you want to pursue a career in academia, or do you have another professional goal that you would best achieve with this PhD?[4] Do you believe that this PhD is something you can’t live without? If you’re confident that this is what you want, the next thing is to decide whether to go straight to a PhD program, or whether to pursue one of the options below.

Talk with your professors about your skills in Greek and Latin. This is a crucial factor: in grad school in Classics, it’s not uncommon to have a workload of 500-1,000 lines of text in Greek or Latin per course, per week, and you’ll usually have 3, sometimes 4 courses in a semester, often with secondary reading assignments as well. In Classical Archaeology programs, the standards for Greek and Latin are also very high. If this is something you’re in a position to succeed with, then going straight to a PhD program may be right for you.[5] If you don’t have sufficient background with the languages yet, consider the options below.

One last word about the PhD program: if you are unsure about whether you want to do a PhD, but know you want to continue to study Classics, applying to PhD programs may not be the best idea. Certainly, if you know now you don’t want to finish the PhD, it’s a bad idea to apply. Of course, some graduate students enter PhD programs with every intention of finishing but end up leaving early. There’s nothing wrong with this decision since it’s impossible to understand what graduate school will be like for you until you’ve tried it; your goals may change over time, but this is a separate issue from being on the fence about the PhD to begin with. Fortunately, if you are on the fence, there is another option.


The “Terminal” MA[6]

An increasing number of universities are offering MA-only programs, sometimes referred to as “terminal” MAs, but since that sounds like some kind of horrible diagnosis, I’ll just call them MA programs. These are generally 2-year programs which are separate from any PhD program at their respective universities. The advantages of these programs include that they’re a great option for people who are uncertain about whether they want to do a PhD, but are sure they want to continue their studies in Classics. With an MA, you can always apply to PhD programs to continue after you graduate with the MA, either at your current institution, or elsewhere. In fact, having an MA can improve your chances of success in the competitive world of PhD applications, as you’ll have far more experience in the field than you did coming out of your undergraduate institution, not just in terms of your knowledge and skills (which are obviously very important), but also in the less tangible elements of your professional relationships with faculty members and fellow graduate students. An MA program is also an excellent option for those who know that they do not want a PhD, but still want an MA. An MA in Classics or Classical Archaeology can be a valuable asset in a number of fields, especially teaching.

The main downsides of MA programs in Classics include that many of them do not fund all of their students or do not fund them fully. Usually such funding as does exist is attached to teaching and is fairly competitive. This means that you may be on the hook for tuition, which is generally high, and federal graduate student loans have high interest rates and are no longer subsidized. If you do choose an MA program, be sure to apply for funding, and consider applying to more than one to increase your chances of receiving one of those coveted funding packages! Another potential downside is that if you do an MA program, then move on to a PhD program, particularly if you move to a different institution, you may take longer to finish your PhD than if you had gone straight to the PhD. Many PhD programs require all new students to begin at the MA-level, meaning that you would be required to complete a second MA. This may or may not be desirable, and you should know that not all PhD programs will require this; some even do not allow it. If you are in this position, you’ll want to find out about these requirements, decide what you want in terms of a second MA, and apply accordingly.


The Post-Bac

Another option, if you want to go on to either the MA or the PhD, but you don’t think you’re prepared for graduate level work (especially if your language skills aren’t there yet) is a post-baccalaureate (post-bac) program. These are generally 1-year, non-degree programs (though some offer a certificate) that have the specific aim of preparing you for graduate-level work.[7]

Unlike an MA program, in which first-year students begin graduate-level work immediately, a post-bac is designed to bridge the gap in language skills that exists for many people coming out of their undergraduate programs. The transition in workload is thus meant to be more manageable. Aside from this, a post-bac can have many of the same advantages as an MA program when you go on to apply to PhD programs: your skills will be better than they were before, you’ll have forged connections with faculty members and fellow students at you post-bac institution. You will also have spent less time accomplishing this before your applications than with an MA program.

The downsides include that post-bacs are expensive and virtually never have funding packages. In addition, since they’re generally non-degree programs, you are not eligible for federal loans (though you’ll want to confirm funding details with individual programs). Furthermore, you may or may not consider it a disadvantage that since it is a non-degree program, if you decide not to apply to grad school after all, you won’t have a degree to show for your hard work.



If you want to do a Masters degree, and know that you want to teach Latin at the secondary school level, look into programs that offer a Master of Arts in Teaching in Latin. Many universities with graduate programs in Classics have this option, often in conjunction with their department or college of Education. The benefit of an MAT compared with an MA is that you will be certified to teach in public schools as well as private, and your program will be more tailored to your specific professional goals. At the same time, you’ll also be able to do graduate-level coursework in Classics.


In addition to your own research on different programs, your best bet when choosing which specific programs to apply to, and later, if you’ve had admission offers, which to accept is to seek advice from multiple people, both professors and current graduate students. Because the selection process is inherently subjective (you want to match your own goals and interests with a potential advisor as well as with specific program requirements, department culture, funding situation, location, etc.), it’s a good idea to get multiple opinions in order to get a broader sense of what program is likely to be best for you. I hope that this piece can serve as a useful starting point for this process.




[1] I regret that this post is biased toward graduate programs in Classics rather than Classical Archaeology, though I believe that much of what is written here is applicable to both fields. It is also exclusively concerned with graduate programs in the US.

[2] CAMWS maintains lists of graduate programs in Classics, which are found here: The SCS also maintains a list of graduate programs in Classics in the United States, with degrees offered and links to individual department websites. This excellent resource is available here:

[3] See CAMWS’ directory of PhD programs in Classics, available at, and the AIA’s directory of archaeology PhD programs:

[4] I’ll leave aside the vexed issue of the advisability of pursuing a career in academia, and would instead recommend that you ask a professor to talk frankly with you about the current state of academic employment in our field, not to discourage you, but so you know what you’re getting yourself into.

[5] Your writing skills are also an enormously important element of success in graduate school. Ask a professor for whom you’ve written a paper for their opinion about your ability to succeed at graduate-level writing.

[6] See CAMWS’ directory of MA programs, including MAT programs:

[7] See CAMWS’ directory of post-bac programs:

Work-life Balance: Tips for Keeping your Sanity and Identity in Graduate School

By: Elizabeth Deacon, PhD student in Classics at the University of Colorado Boulder


Graduate school can swallow up your whole life. Faced with the large increase in workload compared to undergrad, new grad students often respond by pouring more time into their studies, letting schoolwork eat up their evenings, weekends, and any other scrap of spare time. This is hard on mental health, though, and in my opinion is a big part of why grad school has such a reputation for being bad for mental health. It’s also less effective at getting work done. Yes! You may be able to get more done by allotting less time to work.

Work-life balance is hugely beneficial. When work is your top priority twenty-four hours a day, everything else you care about becomes second priority at best and gets neglected as such. Carving some time for yourself out of your work schedule can leave you wondering if you’re dedicated enough to your field or if you’ll have time to finish your work once the carving is done, but taking time for yourself will in fact make you more successful in your studies. When parts of the day are dedicated to eating properly, exercising, and relaxing, you get a chance to recharge and keep yourself in the best shape mentally and physically, which allows you to work harder and better in those time periods that you do allot to work.

And make no mistake, graduate school is work, as in a job. For undergraduates, college can be a whole-life activity; students may live in dorms, eat meals in the dining hall, and meet most of the people they know in classes or college-sponsored clubs. There is no separate home life away from school. Bringing these habits into graduate school is not a recipe for success. The work is more intense and exhausting, so a break from it becomes critical, and the all-encompassing support networks colleges build for undergraduates do not apply as well to graduate students. Grad school can appear a lot like undergrad, but it functions much more like a job. Graduate students must build their own support networks outside of school, and are well-served by the break from study.

So how do you achieve work-life balance when your job is so eager to eat up your whole life? There’s no easy answer there, but here are a few techniques that have worked for me and other graduate students I know:

  • Build a distinction between home and work: Make home feel like home. Take some time to make your apartment a pleasant place to live in, with things like comfortable living room furniture, art you like on the walls, or a pet to come home to, whatever makes you feel happy and at home. Try to keep work-related books and other materials in a confined area. If you’re going to spend some time not feeling “at work,” you need a space that is clearly not work to do it in, and it should be one you find pleasant.
  • Get to know people who aren’t in your department: As an undergraduate you can meet all your friends and romantic interests in class, but graduate students are better off branching out. It’s great to be friends with people in your department, but they can’t be your everything. People who don’t know anything about your field of research are the friend equivalents of parts of your home that don’t have textbooks all over them. They give you a social space to spend time in that is a break from work. And dating in the department works about as well as sleeping with someone in the office at any other job, with the added issue that it can sometimes be difficult for two people in the same field to get jobs close to each other, if the relationship does work out. Find people who share your hobbies, religion, or favorite exercise, or just join a local group that meets at the bar every Friday at happy hour. You are more than your passion for your work; call back to mind the other things you cared about and liked to do before grad school took up all your time, and find other people to do those things with.
  • Take care of your body: Exercise, get enough sleep, and eat good, nourishing food. A healthier body will make you happier and give you more energy to tackle your studies. Sometimes when you look at a busy schedule it’s tempting to cut down that big, empty, eight hour block allotted to sleep, but a person who has gotten enough sleep works significantly faster and better than an exhausted one. Exercise and food have similar effects. Cutting into time scheduled for these things to find more time to study is a false economy.
  • Take care of your mind: Much like your body, your mind needs rest and nourishment to work well. Pursue interests you have unrelated to your degree, meditate or attend church, listen to music, and read books for fun so you don’t forget you like reading after a few hours wading through dense academic jargon. Spend some time with those friends mentioned two bullet points back. Find time for your hobbies; they can be fantastic sources of stress relief, places for successes when you’re not having any at work, and a way to meet new people.
  • Schedule: Scheduling is critical for me. If I don’t schedule a time in the day to go out for a run, my run will forever be planned for “after I finish reading one more article.” All of these non-work things need a defined time slot on your calendar or you will never get around to them. Work also needs to be scheduled for a clear time in your day, lest it be shoved out of the way for your new non-work pursuits. This can help get more work done as well; when the whole day is allotted to work, it becomes easier to decide to read an article later and watch one more YouTube cat video first, which can lead you down a rabbit hole of procrastination. When you have to stop working in an hour because you’re meeting some friends for soccer afterward, now becomes the only possible time to finish that article.

Grad school can be an extremely difficult job, but it is still just a job. You can come home from it. Make a home to come to, make time for other things and people you love, and make time to take care of yourself. A balanced life makes you healthier, and when you’re healthier you work faster and better, and withstand the stresses of graduate school better. And aside from the benefits to your work, it improves your quality of life. Even when you’re a graduate student, you deserve to make your own happiness a priority.